Based on a recent study, our team has published an article in “Addiction” titled, “Collaborative behavioral management among parolees: Effects on substance use, crime and re-arrest in the Step’N Out Experiment.” To access the full text, click here.


To determine whether collaborative behavioral management (CBM) reduces substance use, crime and re-arrest among drug-involved parolees.


Step’n Out was a randomized behavioral trial of CBM versus standard parole (SP) during 2004-2008. CBM adapted evidence-based role induction, behavioral contracting, and contingent reinforcement to provide parole officer/treatment counselor dyads with positive tools in addition to sanctions to manage parolees’ behavior over 12 weeks.


Six parole offices in five states in the U.S.A.


Parolee volunteers with a mandate for addiction treatment and a minimum of three months of parole (N=476). Follow-up was 94% at 3- and 86% at 9-months.


Drug use and crime in a given month from calendar interviews 3- and 9-months after parole initiation, and re-arrests from criminal justice administrative data.


The CBM group had fewer months in which they used their primary drug (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.78, p = .02) and alcohol (ARR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.66, p=.006) over follow-up. CBM had its greatest effects among parolees who reported marijuana or another “non-hard” drug as their primary drug; parolees who preferred stimulants or opiates did not benefit. No differences were seen in total crime, re-arrests or parole revocations.


Collaborative behavioral management may reduce substance use among primary marijuana or other “non-hard” drug-using parolees without increasing revocations. Since the majority of drug violation arrests in the U.S. are for marijuana, these findings have important implications for the management of a substantial proportion of the U.S. community correctional population.

To obtain the full text, click here.